The main reinforcement materials used in resin matrix composites are glass fiber, carbon fiber, aramid fiber, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fiber and so on.
1. Glass fiber.
At present, the main glass fibers used in high performance composites are high strength glass fiber, quartz glass fiber and high silica glass fiber. Due to the high performance-price ratio of high-strength glass fiber, the growth rate is also relatively fast, with an annual growth rate of more than 10%. High strength glass fiber composites are not only used in military, but also in civil products in recent years. Such as bulletproof helmets, bulletproof clothing, helicopter wings, early warning aircraft radome, a variety of high-pressure vessels, civil aircraft panels, sporting goods, all kinds of heat-resistant products and recently reported excellent performance tire cord and so on. Quartz glass fiber and high silicon oxygen glass fiber are high temperature resistant glass fibers, which are ideal heat resistant and fireproof materials. The reinforced phenolic resin can be used to make high temperature resistant and ablation resistant composite parts of various structures. A large number of heat-proof materials used in rockets and missiles. So far, of the three reinforced fibers of carbon fiber, aramid fiber and high strength glass fiber used in high performance resin matrix composites in China, only high strength glass fiber has reached the international advanced level. And has independent intellectual property rights, the formation of a small-scale industry, at this stage, the annual output can reach 500 tons.
2. Carbon fiber.
Carbon fiber has a series of properties, such as high strength, high modulus, high temperature resistance, conductivity and so on. First of all, it has been widely used in the field of aerospace, and in recent years, it has also been widely used in sports equipment and sporting goods. It is predicted that industrial grade carbon fiber will be used on a large scale in civil construction, transportation, automobile, energy and other fields. From 1997 to 2000, the annual growth rate of aerospace carbon fiber is estimated to be 31%, while that of industrial carbon fiber is estimated to reach 130%. The overall level of carbon fiber in China is still relatively low, which is equivalent to the middle and late 1970s, and the gap between China and foreign countries is about 20 years. The main problems of domestic carbon fiber are unstable performance and large dispersion coefficient, no high performance carbon fiber, single variety, incomplete specification, insufficient continuous length, no surface treatment, high price and so on.
3. Aramid fiber.
Since the 1980s, the Netherlands, Japan and the former Soviet Union have also carried out the research and development of aramid fiber. Aramid fibers from Japan and Russia have been put on the market, with an annual growth rate of about 20%. The specific strength and specific modulus of aramid fiber are higher. Therefore, high performance composite components (such as rocket engine shell, aircraft engine cabin, fairing, rudder, etc.), ships (such as aircraft carrier, nuclear submarine, yacht, lifeboat, etc.), which are widely used in aerospace field, such as rocket engine shell, aircraft engine cabin, fairing, rudder, etc. Cars (such as tire cord, high-pressure hose, friction materials, high-pressure gas cylinders, etc.) as well as heat-resistant transport belts, sports equipment and so on.
4. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fiber.
The specific strength of UHMWPE fiber ranks first among all kinds of fibers, especially its chemical corrosion resistance and aging resistance. It also has excellent high-frequency Sonar penetration and seawater corrosion resistance. Many countries have used it to manufacture the high-frequency Sonar guide cover of warships, which has greatly improved the mine detection and minesweeping ability of warships. In addition to the military field, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber also has a broad application prospect in the fields of automobile manufacturing, ship manufacturing, medical equipment, sports equipment and so on. As soon as the fiber came out, it has aroused great interest and attention in the developed countries in the world.