The development of modern high technology is inseparable from composite materials, which play a very important role in the development of modern science and technology. In recent years, it has been widely used in aerospace, marine development, ships, ships, high-speed rail cars, etc. Because of its light weight, corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance, and high strength, it has played a great role in many fields and replaced Many traditional materials.
At present, glass fiber and carbon fiber composite materials play a huge role in the fields of offshore energy development, shipbuilding, and marine engineering repair.
1. Application in marine energy
Offshore oil has been recognized as a field with this potential. For some time now, composite materials have slowly and steadily replaced the top (above water level) metal in more and more offshore installations, whether it is a new installation or the renovation of an existing structure. Carbon fiber has a high advantage in marine engineering construction. Carbon fiber materials have lighter weight, high strength and corrosion resistance. Most of them use structural parts to replace traditional building materials, reducing the weight of high freight and seawater erosion. Problems caused by steel reinforcement materials.
Compared with steel that corrodes rapidly in seawater, composite materials made of chemical-resistant resin have almost no corrosion. For platform components, such as column pipes (pipes that extend from the platform down to below the water surface to supply seawater) and fire water systems (pipes used to extinguish potential fires), this corrosion resistance means years of maintenance-free service. The life cycle of fiber reinforced plastic pipes can be saved up to 70%. "
In 1994, Brazilian oil companies used composite grilles, handrails, ladders and other custom products on a large scale. A composite grille has been made concrete with high load-bearing capacity and minimal deflection. A 38 mm/1.5 inch deep pultruded grille weighs only one-third of steel, and can withstand a uniform load of 4,882 kg/m2 (1,000 lb/ft2) over a 1.2m/4ft clear span. Has higher corrosion resistance.
2. Application in ships
Composite materials were first used on ships in the mid-1960s, and the lips were used to make deckhouses on patrol gunboats. In the 1970s, the superstructure of mine hunting boats also began to use composite materials. In the 1990s, composite materials have been fully applied to the fully enclosed masts and sensor systems (AEM/S) of ships. Compared with traditional shipbuilding materials, composite materials have good mechanical properties and are used to manufacture ship hulls. They have the characteristics of lighter weight and more energy saving, and the manufacturing process is relatively simple. The application of composite materials on ships not only achieves weight reduction, but also adds radar infrared Stealth and other functions.
The United States, Britain, Russia, Sweden, France and other navies attach great importance to the application of composite materials in ships and have formulated corresponding advanced technology development plans for composite materials.
1. Glass fiber
High-strength glass fiber has the characteristics of high tensile strength, high elastic modulus, good impact resistance, good chemical stability, good fatigue resistance, and high temperature resistance. It can be used for deep-water mine shells, bulletproof armor, lifeboats, high-pressure vessels and propellers, etc. . The U.S. Navy has used composite materials in the superstructure of ships very early, and the number of ships equipped with composite superstructures is also the largest.
The composite superstructure of the US Navy ship was originally used for minesweepers. It is an all-glass steel structure and is the largest all-glass composite minesweeper in the world. It has high toughness, no brittle fracture characteristics, and has excellent performance when withstanding underwater explosions. .
2. Carbon fiber
The application of carbon fiber-reinforced composite masts on ships has gradually emerged. The entire Swedish navy’s corvettes are made of composite materials to achieve high-performance stealth capabilities and reduce weight by 30%. The entire "Visby" ship has an extremely low magnetic field, which can evade most radars and advanced sonar systems (including thermal imaging), achieving a stealth effect. It has the special functions of weight reduction, radar and infrared dual stealth.
Carbon fiber composite materials can also be applied to other aspects of ships. For example, it can be used as a propeller and propulsion shafting in the propulsion system to reduce the vibration effect and noise of the hull, and it is mostly used in reconnaissance ships and fast cruise ships. It can be used as a rudder in machinery and equipment, some special mechanical devices and pipeline systems, etc. In addition, high-strength carbon fiber ropes are also widely used in naval warship cables and other military items.
Carbon fiber composite materials are used in other applications of ships, such as the propellers and propulsion shafts on the propulsion system, which are characterized by reducing the vibration effect and noise of the hull, and are mostly used in reconnaissance ships and fast cruise ships. Special mechanical devices and piping systems, etc.
3. Civilian Yachts
The superyacht brig, the hull and deck are covered with carbon fiber/epoxy resin, the hull is 60m long, but the total weight is only 210t. The carbon fiber catamarans built in Poland use vinyl ester resin sandwich composite materials, PVC foam and carbon fiber composite materials. The mast booms are all customized carbon fiber composite materials, and only part of the hull uses fiberglass. The weight is only 45t. It has the characteristics of fast speed and low fuel consumption.
In addition, carbon fiber materials can be used in yacht instrument dials and antennas, rudders, and reinforced structures such as decks, cabins, and bulkheads.
Generally speaking, the application of carbon fiber in the marine field started relatively late. In the future, with the development of composite technology, the development of maritime military and the development of marine resources, as well as the enhancement of equipment design capabilities, there will be an increase in carbon fiber and its composite materials. Booming.