The application of composite materials on trains can be roughly divided into two categories according to the bearing characteristics: composite non-main bearing parts and composite main bearing parts. Among them, composite non-main bearing parts can be divided into main bearing parts (non-main bearing parts such as body, floor and seat) and auxiliary parts (auxiliary parts such as washroom, toilet and water tank), while composite material main The load-bearing parts mainly refer to the large load-bearing components of the train such as the train body, the driver's cab and the bogie frame. It is the key to the replacement of traditional materials by composite materials to achieve lightweight vehicles.
The application of composite materials in train auxiliary parts and general load-bearing parts. In the high-speed passenger cars used on the Shinkansen in Japan, glass fiber reinforced raw material (GFRP) composite materials are mainly used in car window interior frames, washrooms, toilets, and urinals , Water tanks, toilet boxes, front cover panels, roof panels at both ends of double-decker buses, ceilings of air-conditioning ducts, and side ceilings of dining car air-conditioning covers. In order to reduce the aerodynamic noise around the pantograph, the pantograph cover installed on the roof is also made of GFRP material. The 200 series Tohoku and Joetsu Shinkansen buses use honeycomb sandwich materials to make floors and intermediate partition doors.
Similarly, TGV high-speed trains in France also use fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) to make floors, wall panels, door and window frames, seats and doors. Using FRP to manufacture these components, in addition to light weight, also has the advantages of easy design, reduced maintenance operations, and overall molding to reduce costs. In addition, the use of glass fiber reinforced plastic floors for toilets, and the overall toilet has become more popular in foreign countries, which not only solves the corrosion problem, but also achieves the purpose of reducing weight.
On the Italian ETR500 high-speed train, all internal structural side walls, ceilings and luggage compartments use high specific stiffness composite sandwich panels-two Tedlar polyvinyl fluoride plastic layers sandwiched with Nomex honeycomb core material glass fiber phenolic layer Press plate; Eurostar trains also use phenolic honeycomb panels as their internal structural parts.
The British railway department found that the performance of the pantograph head was very satisfactory by choosing the aramid fiber reinforced composite material. In recent years, composite materials have also been used as anti-impact components, and good test results have been obtained.